Cardiac Nutrition and Recipes: Eating, Cooking, and Living the Heart Healthy Way. Learn to Manage Your Heart Disease Through Diet, Exercise, and Lifestyle Changes & More!



Search Articles:


 Heart Disease
- Wellness & Nutrition
- Heart Healthy Recipes

Board Review
- General Surgery Board Review
- ABSITE High Yield Review
- Surgery SHELF Exam Review
- CT Board Review
- CT Oral Board Review
- Cardiology Board Review

 Online Store
- Buy Books Online
- Eating for Healthy Heart
- Understanding Heart Disease
- High Blood Pressure & Stroke


 Contact Us
 About This Site

Nutrition Information Printer Friendly Version Send to a Friend

Smoking in Postmenopausal Women

by Hratch L Karamanoukian, MD and Pierre Aoukar, MD
Posted: February 26

Smoking is the most preventable risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease, in both men and women.

There has been a significant gain in knowledge about the impact of gender upon the development of coronary artery disease.

When women have heart attacks from coronary artery disease, the risk of death is higher than for men with similar age and risk factors.

The authors of a study published in the Journal of Internal Medicine looked at the relationship of smoking to other risk factors in postmenopausal women with known coronary artery disease.

The women were randomized to get hormone replacement therapy or to a control arm (no treatment).

They found that smoking adversely affects insulin secretion in these postmenopausal women, as well as increased whole blood viscocity ("blood stickiness"). Hormone replacement therapy had no effect on whole blood viscocity in these postmenopausal women.

The conclusions in this study are that postmenopausal women with established coronary artery disease who smoke have an increased risk for progressive coronary artery disease due to insulin resistance and increased whole blood viscocity.

For further information regarding smoking cessation, postmenopausal status or hormone replacement therapy, contact your primary care physician or cardiovascular specialist.

Smoking and Relation to Other Risk Factors in Postmenopausal Women with Coronary Artery Disease, with Particular Reference to Whole Blood Viscocity and Beta-Cell Function, Annals of Internal Medicine 253: 232-239

Date of Article Publication:

Web Site:


(c) by Dr. Freeman. All Rights Reserved. | Terms Of Use | Privacy Notice